Final Code

Alright, so that's implementing a 100% safe doubly-linked list in Rust. It was a nightmare to implement, leaks implementation details, and doesn't support several fundamental operations.

But, it exists.

Oh, I guess it's also riddled with tons of "unnecessary" runtime checks for correctness between Rc and RefCell. I put unnecessary in quotes because they're actually necessary to guarantee the whole actually being safe thing. We encountered a few places where those checks actually were necessary. Doubly-linked lists have a horribly tangled aliasing and ownership story!

Still, it's a thing we can do. Especially if we don't care about exposing internal data structures to our consumers.

From here on out, we're going to be focusing on other side of this coin: getting back all the control by making our implementation unsafe.


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
use std::rc::Rc;
use std::cell::{Ref, RefMut, RefCell};

pub struct List<T> {
    head: Link<T>,
    tail: Link<T>,
}

type Link<T> = Option<Rc<RefCell<Node<T>>>>;

struct Node<T> {
    elem: T,
    next: Link<T>,
    prev: Link<T>,
}


impl<T> Node<T> {
    fn new(elem: T) -> Rc<RefCell<Self>> {
        Rc::new(RefCell::new(Node {
            elem: elem,
            prev: None,
            next: None,
        }))
    }
}

impl<T> List<T> {
    pub fn new() -> Self {
        List { head: None, tail: None }
    }

    pub fn push_front(&mut self, elem: T) {
        let new_head = Node::new(elem);
        match self.head.take() {
            Some(old_head) => {
                old_head.borrow_mut().prev = Some(new_head.clone());
                new_head.borrow_mut().next = Some(old_head);
                self.head = Some(new_head);
            }
            None => {
                self.tail = Some(new_head.clone());
                self.head = Some(new_head);
            }
        }
    }

    pub fn push_back(&mut self, elem: T) {
        let new_tail = Node::new(elem);
        match self.tail.take() {
            Some(old_tail) => {
                old_tail.borrow_mut().next = Some(new_tail.clone());
                new_tail.borrow_mut().prev = Some(old_tail);
                self.tail = Some(new_tail);
            }
            None => {
                self.head = Some(new_tail.clone());
                self.tail = Some(new_tail);
            }
        }
    }

    pub fn pop_back(&mut self) -> Option<T> {
        self.tail.take().map(|old_tail| {
            match old_tail.borrow_mut().prev.take() {
                Some(new_tail) => {
                    new_tail.borrow_mut().next.take();
                    self.tail = Some(new_tail);
                }
                None => {
                    self.head.take();
                }
            }
            Rc::try_unwrap(old_tail).ok().unwrap().into_inner().elem
        })
    }

    pub fn pop_front(&mut self) -> Option<T> {
        self.head.take().map(|old_head| {
            match old_head.borrow_mut().next.take() {
                Some(new_head) => {
                    new_head.borrow_mut().prev.take();
                    self.head = Some(new_head);
                }
                None => {
                    self.tail.take();
                }
            }
            Rc::try_unwrap(old_head).ok().unwrap().into_inner().elem
        })
    }

    pub fn peek_front(&self) -> Option<Ref<T>> {
        self.head.as_ref().map(|node| {
            Ref::map(node.borrow(), |node| &node.elem)
        })
    }

    pub fn peek_back(&self) -> Option<Ref<T>> {
        self.tail.as_ref().map(|node| {
            Ref::map(node.borrow(), |node| &node.elem)
        })
    }

    pub fn peek_back_mut(&mut self) -> Option<RefMut<T>> {
        self.tail.as_ref().map(|node| {
            RefMut::map(node.borrow_mut(), |node| &mut node.elem)
        })
    }

    pub fn peek_front_mut(&mut self) -> Option<RefMut<T>> {
        self.head.as_ref().map(|node| {
            RefMut::map(node.borrow_mut(), |node| &mut node.elem)
        })
    }

    pub fn into_iter(self) -> IntoIter<T> {
        IntoIter(self)
    }
}

impl<T> Drop for List<T> {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        while self.pop_front().is_some() {}
    }
}

pub struct IntoIter<T>(List<T>);

impl<T> Iterator for IntoIter<T> {
    type Item = T;

    fn next(&mut self) -> Option<T> {
        self.0.pop_front()
    }
}

impl<T> DoubleEndedIterator for IntoIter<T> {
    fn next_back(&mut self) -> Option<T> {
        self.0.pop_back()
    }
}

#[cfg(test)]
mod test {
    use super::List;

    #[test]
    fn basics() {
        let mut list = List::new();

        // Check empty list behaves right
        assert_eq!(list.pop_front(), None);

        // Populate list
        list.push_front(1);
        list.push_front(2);
        list.push_front(3);

        // Check normal removal
        assert_eq!(list.pop_front(), Some(3));
        assert_eq!(list.pop_front(), Some(2));

        // Push some more just to make sure nothing's corrupted
        list.push_front(4);
        list.push_front(5);

        // Check normal removal
        assert_eq!(list.pop_front(), Some(5));
        assert_eq!(list.pop_front(), Some(4));

        // Check exhaustion
        assert_eq!(list.pop_front(), Some(1));
        assert_eq!(list.pop_front(), None);

        // ---- back -----

        // Check empty list behaves right
        assert_eq!(list.pop_back(), None);

        // Populate list
        list.push_back(1);
        list.push_back(2);
        list.push_back(3);

        // Check normal removal
        assert_eq!(list.pop_back(), Some(3));
        assert_eq!(list.pop_back(), Some(2));

        // Push some more just to make sure nothing's corrupted
        list.push_back(4);
        list.push_back(5);

        // Check normal removal
        assert_eq!(list.pop_back(), Some(5));
        assert_eq!(list.pop_back(), Some(4));

        // Check exhaustion
        assert_eq!(list.pop_back(), Some(1));
        assert_eq!(list.pop_back(), None);
    }

    #[test]
    fn peek() {
        let mut list = List::new();
        assert!(list.peek_front().is_none());
        assert!(list.peek_back().is_none());
        assert!(list.peek_front_mut().is_none());
        assert!(list.peek_back_mut().is_none());

        list.push_front(1); list.push_front(2); list.push_front(3);

        assert_eq!(&*list.peek_front().unwrap(), &3);
        assert_eq!(&mut *list.peek_front_mut().unwrap(), &mut 3);
        assert_eq!(&*list.peek_back().unwrap(), &1);
        assert_eq!(&mut *list.peek_back_mut().unwrap(), &mut 1);
    }

    #[test]
    fn into_iter() {
        let mut list = List::new();
        list.push_front(1); list.push_front(2); list.push_front(3);

        let mut iter = list.into_iter();
        assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(3));
        assert_eq!(iter.next_back(), Some(1));
        assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(2));
        assert_eq!(iter.next_back(), None);
        assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);
    }
}
#}